Open Access Case study

Advanced Tubal Ectopic Pregnacy-A Rare Case

Meenakshi Singh, Pikee Saxena, Kavita Choudhary, . Soni, Abha Singh

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 31-34

Ectopic pregnancy should always be suspected and ruled out with a carefully done early trimester ultrasound in women with risk factors of ectopic pregnancy especially history of previous ectopic pregnancy. With the advent of transvaginal ultrasound, the ectopic pregnancies are rarely missed and managed before advancing to higher gestation. Although abdominal and cornual pregnancies are reported to reach higher gestations, few tubal pregnancies are reported to reach advanced gestation. As these advanced tubal pregnancies are still rare, we report this case of a woman with previous tubal ectopic whose present tubal ectopic pregnancy was missed despite an early ultrasound. The patient was provisionally diagnosed to have an abdominal or cornual pregnancy pertaining to clinical presentation and radiological findings but preoperatively confirmed to have an advanced tubal ectopic pregnancy of 15 weeks 4 days which was managed surgically.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Awareness and Knowledge on Cervical Cancer among Women in Buea- Cameroon

C. Neh Fru, Tassang Andrew, Frederick Nchang Cho, Tassang Thierry, P. Ngum Fru

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-14

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer among women who came for screening at the regional hospital Buea- South West Region of Cameroon.

Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study involving women aged from 16 to 65 years was carried out. A one-day free screening campaign was done at the Buea regional hospital on the 2nd of November, 2019.

Results:  The age, educational status, marital status, age at first sex, and a number of sexual partners for the last past years were associated with knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer screening.

Conclusion: The number of sex partners for the last five years, age, educational level, and marital status were determinants affecting awareness and knowledge in this study. Further studies are needed with larger sample sizes to corroborate or not our findings.

Open Access Original Research Article

Economic Implication of Covid-19 on Antenatal Care in Niger State: A Regression Approach

Charity Ifeyinwa Anoke, Bright C. Orji, Stephen I. Odo, Bartholomew Odio

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 15-23

Antenatal care (ANC) service has been one of the major mechanisms to curbing maternal mortality in the world. This study analyzed the economic impact of COVID-19 on ANC in Niger State, Nigeria from March – July 2020. The study objective was to evaluate the economic impact of COVID-19 on ANC. The study used secondary data from National District Health Information System (DHIS); and adopted the values from ANOVA and regression statistical estimations statistical Excel packages for analysis. The data was randomly selected from 10 local government areas (LGAs) out of 25 LGAs of the State. These LGAs recorded confirmed cases of COVID 19. The data elements (variables) were total ANC attendance and number of Sulfadoxine Pyrimethamine (SP or IPTp) taken by pregnant women in the health facility and confirmed malaria cases for pregnant women from March to July 2020. Study result indicated significant impact of COVID-19 on ANC with Pval of 0.00025. Positive and significant effect of ANC on IPTp uptake with the coefficient of 0.565912 and Pval of 0.008793, meaning that 1% increase in ANC could ead to 56.5% increase in IPTp uptake. There was no significant increase in confirmed malaria in Niger State within the period of study with Pvalue of 0.418786. The implications of the results were, it reduced the revenue being generated for the services of the health facility, exposing pregnant women and her fetus to dangers of malaria during pregnancy while stretching the fragile primary health care system; and give chance to unhealthy pregnant women and child. It could increase malaria in pregnancy which in turn reduce the efficiency of those women in economic activities, mostly, farming, buying & selling, predominant in the region. Thereby, reduced productivity and increasing poverty in that region. More so, it can lead to increase in maternal – child mortality in the State which has been a burden to the country, hence, reduction in working population that could have stimulated productivity and increase standard of living. In conclusion, the study highlights the impact of COVID-19 and potential factors for closer investigation to reduce its effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation of Pap Smear and Colposcopy with the Histology of Women Who Presented for Cervical Cancer Screening at a Tertiary Hospital in Akure, South-West, Nigeria

T. A. Irinyenikan, O. E. Pelemo, M. C. Nweke

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 24-30

Background: Cervical cancer screening helps in the early detection and prevention of cervical cancer especially when screening methods are available.

Methodology: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Oncology clinic of the University of Medical Sciences Teaching Hospital Complex Akure using the records of women who presented for cervical cancer screening from January 2017 to December 2019. Information about their socio-demographic characteristics, cytology, colposcopy and histology reports were obtained. A total of 216 women were presented for screening and out of which 104 had abnormal pap smear results. However; only the reports of 100 women had correlated histology and thus were analysed using SPSS version 23.

Results: The majority of the women were between 40-59years, and were married (96%) and had between 3-4 children (56%). Among them 71% were reported to have had atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), 24% with low grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (LGSIL); while 5% had high grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HGSIL) on cytology. The sensitivity of cytology was found to be 34.6% and a specificity of 94.7% while colposcopy showed a sensitivity of 97.5% and a specificity of 73.7%. The accuracy of cytology was 46% and that of colposcopy was 93%.

Conclusion: The study showed a good correlation and a higher accuracy in the detection of pre-malignant lesions when cytolology is combined with colposcopy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices towards Covid-19 among Pregnant Women in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria

D. O. Allagoa, P. C. Oriji, L. Obagah, E. S. Tekenah, N. Dambo, G. Atemie

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 35-41

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease that was first identified in December, 2019 in Wuhan, China. It is caused by a novel coronavirus, and was said to have emerged from a livestock market in Wuhan. The first case of COVID-19 in Nigeria was discovered on the 27th of February, 2020, when an Italian national tested positive for the virus in Lagos.

Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 among pregnant women at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa.

Methods: This study was carried out at the antenatal clinic of the department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, South-South, Nigeria between 3rd August and 28th October, 2020. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted pregnant women that presented to the antenatal clinic for their routine antenatal care.

Selected patients’ bio-data and their knowledge, attitudes and practices towards COVID-19 were entered into a predesigned questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22. The results were presented in tables, frequencies and percentages.

Results: A total of 1,000 participants participated in the study. Out of the total, the mean age was 28.86 years (16 – 41 years). A total of 995 participants (99.5%) resided in Bayelsa State. A lot of the participants (80%) knew that the main clinical symptoms of Covid-19 are fever, fatigue, dry cough and myalgia.

Conclusion: Findings from this study suggest that the pregnant population of our facility have good knowledge, optimistic attitudes and somewhat appropriate practices towards COVID-19.