Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating the Relationship between Socio-Demographic Factors, Knowledge, Ownership and Usage of Long- Lasting Insecticide- Treated Bed Nets among Pregnant Mothers in Rivers State University Teaching Hospital

Felix C. Clement Wekere, Dango G. B. Kalio, Paul L. Kua, Rose S. Iwo-Amah

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-12

Background: Malaria is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and of public health concern. Long- lasting insecticide- treated bed nets (LLINs) is an effective method of prevention and control of malaria.

Aim: To determine the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics of antenatal clinic attendees and their knowledge, ownership and utilization of LLINs.

Methods: This was a secondary data analysis of a cross sectional study of 384 pregnant mothers receiving antenatal care in RSUTH over a 3-month period. Data were sorted, coded and analyzed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. The association between socio-demographic characteristics, and knowledge, ownership and utilization of LLINs was carried out using Pearson Chi-square test and Fisher exact test where appropriate, at a statistical significance level of P < .05.

Results: Data of 384 pregnant women that participated in the study were analyzed. The strong predictors of knowledge of LLINs were participants’ educational status and religion (P < .001 and P < .001) respectively; followed by age [P = .010 (95%CI: .012, .016)] and occupation [P = .017 (95%CI: .020, .026)]. There was no significant association between ‘knowledge’, and parity [P = .37 (95% CI: .34, .36)], and gestational age [P = .35 (95% CI: .34, .36] of the participants. The strong predictors of ownership and utilization of LLINs were the participants’ age (P < .001) and occupation (P < .001); other statistically significant factors found were parity, educational status, and religion (P = .002, P = .015, P = .044) and (P = .007, P = .002, P = .024) respectively. Overall, there was no evidence of association between ownership and utilization of LLINs and gestational age [P = .212 (95% CI: .177, .192) and P = .392 (95% CI: .391, .410)] respectively.

Conclusion: Socio-demographic factors such as age, occupation, educational status and religion are predictors of knowledge, ownership and utilization of LLINs. As such, they are pertinent when planning enlightenment/ education programmes on the use of LLINs for malaria prevention and control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifertility Propensity of Jatropha curcas Linn. Leaves on Male Wistar Rats

Augustine I. Airaodion, Ifedayo A. Ayanleke, Aanu P. Agunbiade, Emmanuel O. Ogbuagu, Edith O. Airaodion, Uloaku Ogbuagu

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 21-29

Background: The use of Jatropha curcas leaves in folklore medicine has gained popularity in recent times due to its medicinal value but without regards to its adverse health effect.

Aim: This study aimed at investigating the effect of J. curcas leaves on the fertility of male Wistar rats.

Methodology: Healthy leaves of J. curcas were harvested, dried and extracted using soxhlet apparatus and ethanol as the solvent. Toxicity test was carried out using standard method. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups of six each after seven days acclimatization period. Animals in group 1 were not treated, while those in groups 2, 3 and 4 were administered 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight of J. curcas extracts respectively for twenty-eight days. Administration was done 12 hourly via oral route. At the end of the administration period, the rats were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture. Testes and cauda epididymis were removed and kept in sterilized watched glass. Sperm quality and concentrations reproductive hormones were determined using standard methods.

Results: Administration of J. curcas leaf extract for 28 days resulted in decline in the sperm count, sperm motility and seminal pH, as well as the serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone. Sperm mortality and abnormality, as well as concentration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were significantly (P<0.05) increased when animals treated with J. curcas leaves were compared with those in the control group.

Conclusion: It is clear from the results of this study that leaf extract of J. curcas reduced sperm quality and adversely affects male reproductive hormones. Thus, men interested in child-bearing should minimize its use for treatment of ailments

Open Access Original Research Article

Outcome of Episiotomy Repair by House Officers at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria

Ikobho Ebenezer Howells, Isaac Joel Abasi

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 30-40

Background: Episiotomy is the commonest operative procedures in obstetrics, and belied by many to expedite delivery. In most tertiary hospitals in Nigeria, majority of the episiotomies are repaired by house officer, with varying degree of complications.

Objective: To determine the complications of episiotomy repair by house officers, using repair by resident doctors as control. Specifically, it would evaluate the rate of wound dehiscence, perineal pain, estimated blood loss, acute urinary retention, vulva hematoma and dyspareunia.

Materials and Methods: A comparative study of 400 parturients who were admitted in labour, delivered vaginally, and had episiotomy repair at the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital in Bayelsa State, Southern Nigeria. Episiotomy repair was carried out in the labour ward by house officers (200 subjects), and resident doctors (200 subjects). All the episiotomies were mediolateral and repaired with polyglactic acid suture, size 0. Using those repaired by resident doctors as control, assessment of the patients was carried within 24 hours for: perineal pain, acute urinary retention, delivery to repair interval, estimated blood loss and vulva hematoma. The next assessment was at 7 days postpartum for perineal pain and wound healing. Finally, they were evaluated at 6 weeks for complete wound healing, perineal pain, and dyspareunia.

Results: There was no significant difference in the rate of wound dehiscence between the 2 groups. However, episiotomy repair by house officers was associated with more vulva hematomas, Odds Ratio = 6.15[CI, 0.73 – 51.60], immediate postoperative pain, P = 0.04[CI, 0.71 – 1.06], and superficial dyspareunia.

Conclusion: Women whose episiotomies were repaired by house officers experience more postoperative morbidity than those repaired by resident doctors. If house officers will continue to repair most of the episiotomies, a more intensive training is recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Ectopic Pregnancy: A 10 Year Review in a Tertiary Hospital in South-South, Nigeria

N. Osegi, J. Omietimi, L. Obagah, L. Okpara, N. Dambo

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 41-46

Background: Ectopic pregnancy continues to be a life threatening gynaecological emergency. In the past decade morbidity and mortality has decreased dramatically but the incidence is rising worldwide.

Objective: To determine the incidence, pattern of presentation, diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa state, Nigeria.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective descriptive study of cases of ectopic pregnancy managed from 1st of January 2008 to 31st of December 2017.

Results: During the period, a total of 12,000 deliveries were recorded. 300 patients had ectopic gestation accounting for 2.5% of all deliveries. The mean age was 27.78 +/- 5.2 years. 

The presenting complaints varied extremely with abdominal pain (97.7%) being the most frequent. A large proportion of patients (50.3%) presented with past history of induced abortion. Diagnosis was made solely on clinical findings in 49% of cases.

Surgical management was the most frequent method of management (99.3%). Only 2 patients (0.7%) benefited from methotrexate therapy.  Approximately 79% had blood transfusion. There were 10 maternal deaths giving a case fatality rate of 3.3%.

Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy is still a major health problem amongst women of reproductive age presenting to the gynaecology unit of the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa. Majority of patients present late, making tubal conservative treatment inappropriate. Case fatality rate in this study shows that ectopic pregnancy is still a significant cause of maternal mortality in our environment.

Open Access Review Article

Female Genital Mutilation: A Dehumanizing Practice against Womanhood in Nigeria

Azuonwu, Goodluck, Ezekiel, Rosemary

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 13-20

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a dehumanizing cultural practice, depriving women of sexual satisfaction and freedom; and the right to decide what happens to their body qualifying it a public health issue globally. The aim of this article is to examine the practice of female genital mutilation in Nigeria through review of empirical studies related to the meaning, types, prevalence, justifications for FGM, complication and elimination of FGM in Nigeria and globally. Articles related to FGM were reviewed. Nigeria has a 25% prevalence rate among women of childbearing age (15 – 45), accounting for one-quarter of the estimated 200 million globally. Its prevalence among geopolitical zones and states varies with types in Osun state (77%), Ebonyi (74%), Ekiti (72%), Imo (68%), Lagos (45%), Kaduna (34%), Kano (13%) and Katsina (0.1%). Types I and II are practiced in the south–south while types III and IV are practiced in the Northern zone. Justification for the practice of FGM include hygiene and aesthetics, initiation into womanhood, acceptability for marriage, control of female sexuality, increased sexual satisfaction for men, and culture. World conferences and summits have been held in the past which re-affirm human rights and call upon governments to strive for their full respect, protection and fulfilment. However, it still persists to some degree in some communities as implementation of laws still pose problems. The royal fathers, chiefs, elders in the communities as custodians of the culture and tradition of the people should be educated on the complications of the practice and its implication on the right of women and girls. Aggressive health education campaigns should be carried out through various media houses and social media such as twitter, facebook, Instagram and Whatsapp. All hands should be on deck to keep pushing for a total ban on Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).