Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) Regarding Family Planning Services among Married Women of Quetta Pakistan

Salma Hameed, Noman Ul Haq, Naheed Haque, Aqeel Nasim, Sohail Riaz, Maria Tahir, Muhammad Saood, Riffat Yasmin, Muhammad Samsoor Zarak

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-12

Aims: This study was conducted to investigate the knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) regarding family planning services among married women of Quetta Pakistan.

Methodology: A cross sectional study was conducted in obstetrics & gynecology department from public sector hospitals of Quetta. Data was collected from February-September 2016 from 503 Females who were sexually active, willing to participate and able to understand Urdu and local languages. Knowledge, attitude and practices on family planning were assessed with the help of predesigned questionnaire. Statistical analysis was done by using SPSS version 20.Result showed that out of 503 women, less than fifty percent (41.2%) were uneducated, house wife (79.1%), Pashtun 40.6%, 89.7% were belongs to urban area and 43.7% were have married life span of 6-10 years. 500 (99.4%) had knowledge about family planning and their methods and it was mainly obtained from TV/Radio (28.8%) followed by health care personal (22.7%). For hundred and ninety two (98.8%) believed that use of family planning methods is beneficial, while (62.0%) health care providers encourage them on the use of family planning services. For hundred and thirty (85.5%) women were practicing family planning methods out of which they were using condom (39.4%) followed by Oral Contraceptive (20.3%). The relationship between Knowledge and Attitude was investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient. There was a small, positive correlation between Knowledge-Attitude [r=0.83, p=0.064], Knowledge-Practice [r=0.119, p=0.008] and Attitude-Practice [r=0.119, p=0.001] was observed. Study concluded that overall knowledge attitude and practice was good among women towards contraception. Husband being the dominant member plays the pivotal role in approving the family size and contraceptive practices. Contraceptive knowledge and practice was influenced by media exposure and partner opposition. Women education and counseling of couples can play an important role to adopt family planning methods. There is a need to improve the educational status of the females to improve their understanding and uptake of modern contraceptives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Dysmenorrhea and Associated Risk Factors among Adolescent Girls in Junior High School of Upper East Region, Ghana

Florence Assibi Ziba, Yussif Adams, Peter Paul Mwinsanga Dapare, Emmanuel Yinkela-Onni Nanoa, Mavis Agaanamah Ayalbire, Elizabeth Memuna Baba

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-12

Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea, associated risk factors, and how it is managed among adolescent girls in junior high schools of the Upper East region in Ghana.

Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study design was adopted.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in five (5) districts; Bolgatanga, Bongo, Builsa, Talensi and Nabdam in the Upper East region of Ghana, between February to June 2018.

Methodology: Simple random sampling was used to collect data from 400 participants in 14 junior high schools of the five districts using a self-administered questionnaire. Likert Scale (LS) was used to rate the severity of dysmenorrhea. Data were analyzed and p-value < 0.05 considered statistically significant.

Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 85%. About 77.8% of respondents with dysmenorrhea had their first menstruation between the ages of 9-11 years. Among those who had dysmenorrhea, 46.8% experienced mild menstrual pain while 11.0% experienced severe pain. Factors that were identified as predictors of risk factors for dysmenorrhea were; menarche between the age 9-11years (aOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.053-3.495), short (<21 days) menstrual cyclic length (aOR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.021-3.578) and short (<2 days) menstruation days (aOR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.385-4.617).

Conclusion: Dysmenorrhea prevalence is high and the risk factors are; girls who had first menstruation between the ages of 9-11 years, those who experience short (<21 days) menstrual cyclic length and short (<2 days) menstrual days. The study recommends that; reproductive health should be included in school health education programs early enough and education extended to parents in order to address the reproductive health needs of females. Further work, however, is encouraged to validate the reliability of these risk factors of dysmenorrhea.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hormonal Contraceptive Uptake and Socio- Demographic Pattern of Acceptors in a Family Planning Clinic of a Tertiary Health Facility in Rivers State, Nigeria

P. A. Awoyesuku, B. O. A. Altraide

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-6

Background: Hormonal methods of birth control are a safe and reliable way to prevent pregnancy for most women. Their uptake rate in comparism to other contraceptive methods in our environment has not been well documented.

Objective: To determine the uptake of hormonal contraceptives and assess socio-demographic characteristics related to the choice, among acceptors in a tertiary health facility in Rivers State.

Methodology: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was adopted. A sample size of 124 was used. New clients were consecutively recruited over a 12-month period. Demographic data (age, parity, educational level, marital status) and contraceptive-related data (choice of contraceptive method, reasons for use) were obtained and analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.

Results: A total of 124 new female clients were recruited with median age of 34 years. Of these, 92(74.2%) accepted hormonal methods while 32 (25.8%) chose non-hormonal methods. Among the hormonal contraceptive acceptors, 94.6% (n=87) used implants, 4.3% (n=4) used injectable and 1.1% (n=1) used oral contraceptive pill. Bivariate analysis of socio-demographic factors and hormonal uptake among the acceptors was statistically significant for marital status, educational level and reason for contraception.

Conclusion: We found a substantial uptake of hormonal contraceptives, mainly implants. The uptake was particularly pronounced among married women with higher educational level and whose reason for contraception is completed family size.

Open Access Original Research Article

Does Chrysophyllum albidum Fruit (Cherry) Induce Abortion/Miscarriage or Not

A. I. Airaodion, E. O. Ogbuagu, V. N. Okoroukwu, J. A. Ekenjoku, U. Ogbuagu, E. O. Airaodion

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-7

Background: There is a general belief that Chrysophyllum albidum fruit (cherry) has the ability to induce abortion (miscarriage) in pregnant women due to its sour taste.

Aim: This study sought to investigate if this fruit actually induces miscarriage or not.

Methods: Freshly harvested C. albidum fruits were purchased from a local market in Orita-Challenge Area of Ibadan. The seeds were removed and the juice was extracted. Thirty fertile male and thirty female Wistar rats were used for this study. After seven days acclimatization, the female rats were separated into its individual cages and had estrus synchronization using Diethylstilbestrol dissolved in paraffin oil and administered at the dose of 1 mg/kg body weight. A male was then introduced into each cage for mating. On the 7th day vaginal smear of each of the female rats was made on a clean glass slide by carefully inserting a cotton-tipped swab moistened with normal saline into the vaginal cavity of the rats and rolled gently against the wall before withdrawal. The smear was stained with Giemsa and observed under microscope to check for presence of protein coagulates. After confirmation of pregnancy, the pregnant rats were grouped into four. Group A was treated with normal saline, groups B, C and D were treated with undiluted C. albidum fruit juice for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively. The animals were then observed daily till they littered. In vitro effect of the fruit on isolated rat uteri was determined using standard method.

Results: No abortion was observed all through the period of pregnancy following administration of C. albidum fruit juice as all the pregnant rats appeared physically healthy and successfully littered at the end of pregnancy.

Conclusion: C. albidum fruit induced multiple contractions of the pregnant rat uteri following in vitro administrations but did not induce abortion when administered to pregnant rats. This suggests that cherry fruit contains active agents which could be isolated and processed into pure utero-tonic agents for use by routes other than the oral. Hence, the consumption of cherry remains relatively safe in pregnancy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Common Household Insecticides Used in Nigeria on Rat Male Reproductive Hormones

Augustine I. Airaodion, Ada C. Ngwogu, Anthony U. Megwas, John A. Ekenjoku, Kenneth O. Ngwogu

International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, Page 1-8

Background: The use of household insecticides for the eradication of insects especially mosquitoes in Nigeria is increasing. These insecticides are used without consideration of their adverse effect on human health.

Aim: This study was aimed at accessing the effect of common household insecticides used in Nigeria on male reproductive hormones of Wistar rats.

Methodology: Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six each and kept in different rooms. Rats in group 1 were exposed to Rambo, those in group 2 were exposed to Mortein, those in group 3 were exposed to Raid, those in group 4 were exposed to Baygon while those in group 5 were not exposed to any insecticide and served as the control group. The exposure was done twice a day via inhalation route. Throughout the experiment, animals were fed ad libitum with standard feed and drinking water. After twenty-one days of exposure, they were sacrificed after an overnight fast under diethyl ether as anesthesia. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Results showed that insecticides caused an increase in FSH but decrease in LH and testosterone levels significantly when compared to those in control animals at P<0.05.

Conclusion: The results indicate that prolonged exposure to common household insecticides used in Nigeria has direct effects on FSH, LH and testosterone levels and may reduce fertility in rats.