International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>International&nbsp;Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology</strong>&nbsp;aims to publish&nbsp;high-quality&nbsp;papers (<a href="/index.php/IJRRGY/general-guideline-for-authors">Click here for Types of paper</a>) in all aspects of&nbsp;‘Gynaecology’. This journal facilitates the research and wishes to publish papers as long as they are technically correct, scientifically motivated. The journal also encourages the submission of useful reports of negative results. This is a quality controlled,&nbsp;OPEN&nbsp;peer-reviewed, open access INTERNATIONAL journal.</p> en-US (International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology) (International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology) Sat, 10 Jul 2021 12:04:35 +0000 OJS 60 Alma Ata Declaration: Journey of Health Promotion on Respiratory Distress Syndrome among Pregnancy and Newborn in Nigeria <p><strong>Purpose</strong><strong>:</strong> In the discussion about landmark achievements of primary healthcare (PHC) in Nigeria, health promotion regarding respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in maternal child health (MCH) is considered to be limited. The objective is to determine the landmark achievements in Nigeria with a view to identify health promotion needs.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This followed a critical narrative review approach. The critical literature search method was adopted as a systematic approach failed to yield any article that satisfies selection criteria, after applying all intended inclusion criteria. Search engines included Google and PubMed as well as government and organizational documents. Major evaluation was 10 years landmark achievement of Alma Ata on MCH program in Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>: </strong>There has been fluctuation and relatively slowed % rate of reduction in maternal mortality. Infant mortality has remained higher than national death rate, hence it is encouraging that Nigeria adopted in 2016 <em>Every Newborn Tracking Tool of the Global Strategy</em> progress monitoring. However, no study has focused on RDS in MCH with regards to impact of gas flaring in Delta State.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> In the goal of achieving <em>health for all</em> emerged the Alma Ata Declaration on primary healthcare (PHC) being endorsed. Although, report is pending with regards to how much of the goals have been unachieved, major finding is dearth of data regarding MCH program in relation to gas flaring or the associated RDS. Studies have yet to focus on government policy regarding mitigation of RDS associated with gas flaring.</p> O. A. Akuirene, E. U. Nwose, J. E. Moyegbone, E. A. Agege, J. O. Odoko, J. O. Adjene, S. D. Nwajei ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 09 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A 6-Year Review of Gestational Trophoblastic Disease in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Okolobiri, Bayelsa State, Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) refers to a spectrum of diseases characterised by aberrant growth and development of the trophoblasts of the placenta that may continue even after the end of pregnancy.</p> <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To determine the prevalence, risk factors, clinical presentations and management of gestational trophoblastic disease in the Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital (NDUTH), Okolobiri, Bayelsa state, Nigeria .</p> <p><strong>Methodology: </strong>In this retrospective, descriptive, cross sectional study design, cases managed for gestational trophoblastic disease between January 2012 and December 2017 were audited using a self-developed proforma. Data collected include sociodemographic information, obstetric history, antenatal care in the index pregnancy, risk factors, management and outcome (morbidity and mortality) associated with gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in the Centre.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 3172 deliveries that occurred during the 6year period under review in NDUTH with a total of 12 cases of GTDs. Hence, GTD is seen in 3.8 per 1,000 deliveries. The mean age of women with GTD was 31±6.3 years. Half of the women (50%) were in the low socio-economic class. The mean parity was 2 ± 1.6. The mean gestational age at presentation was 16.2 ± 5.4 weeks. All the women presented with amenorrhoea, Other presenting complaints include abnormal vaginal bleeding (83.0%) and uterine size greater than date (83.0%). Hydatidiform mole and choriocarcinoma accounted for 75.0% and 25.0% of cases, respectively. Seven (58%) of the patients had suction evacuation only for the management of hydatidiform mole, 1 patient (8.3%) had suction evacuation and chemotherapy for hydatidiform mole and subsequent persistent disease. Three (25%) of the patients had chemotherapy only for Choriocarcinoma. Ten (83.3%) of the patients were successfully treated. During the study period, 2 (17%) of the patients conceived after the treatment and had spontaneous vaginal delivery at term. Three (25%) of the patients made use of contraceptive pills during follow up. There were 2 maternal deaths due to GTD giving a case fatality rate of 6.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>GTDs though rare as shown in our study, they are however still associated with maternal mortality. This study underscores the need for histo-pathological examination of products of uterine evacuation. Urgent and intensified advocacy is needed in terms of good general education, poverty alleviation and improved health-seeking behaviour of our women to enhance early diagnosis, prompt and adequate treatment.</p> I. J. Abasi, I. D. Akanatei, I. A. Ibrahim ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sat, 10 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Determining Factors Influencing Family Planning Practices among Adolescents in the Tema Central Sub-Metropolis, Greater Accra Region, Ghana <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The public health importance of family planning is well documented, some of which include averting the number of unintended pregnancies, reducing maternal and child mortality and number of abortion episodes among women. Adolescents are mostly vulnerable to peculiar health risks in relation to reproduction and sexuality. Despite interventions aimed at improving their family planning uptake, family planning practices among adolescents remain low in Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study was carried out to determine factors influencing&nbsp; the knowledge and&nbsp; Family Planning&nbsp; practices among adolescents at the Tema Central sub-metropolis of Ghana.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to investigate the objective of this study. A total of 381 adolescents from adolescent service friendly units in the Tema Central sub-metropolis were sampled using cluster sampling technique for the study. Knowledge of adolescents on FP services was analysed descriptively using frequencies, percentages. The Chi-Square statistic was used to estimate differences in FP knowledge and demographic data of respondents. Statistical significance was considered based on p-value &lt;0.05.</p> <p><strong>Findings: </strong>There was a high level of awareness of family planning among the adolescents (96.1%). Knowledge on family planning was good among the adolescents (98.4%). Age (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) and level of education (<em>P</em>&lt;0.05) had significant influence on knowledge on family planning among the adolescents. However, out of the 381 adolescents, only twelve (3.1%) had ever used a FP method in the past and only six were using a FP method at the time of the study. Adolescent general perception of youth friendly services provided for the adolescents was positive.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Despite the high level of awareness and good knowledge of family planning among the adolescents, their family planning practices were poor. There is the need to repackage and advertise adolescent family planning services and make the services attractive to adolescents through collaborative effort between the Ghana Health Service, the media and all stakeholders.</p> Douglas Adu-Fokuo, Albert Opoku, Patricia Akweongo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0000 A 5-Year Review of Uterine Rupture in the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, South-South Nigeria <p><strong>Background: </strong>Rupture of the pregnant uterus refers to complete disruption of all uterine layers, including the serosa. It is a life-threatening obstetric emergency and a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To determine the incidence of uterine rupture and the maternal and perinatal outcomes associated with it at the Federal Medical Centre, Yenagoa, Bayelsa State, Nigeria over a 5-year period.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>This retrospective survey was carried out between 1st January, 2016 and 31st December, 2020. Data were retrieved, entered into a pre-designed proforma, and analysed using IBM SPSS version 23.0. Results were presented in frequencies and percentages for categorical variables and mean and standard deviation for continuous variables.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Thirty-four women presented with uterine rupture out of the 4,571 obstetric patients that were managed in the Centre with an incidence rate of 7.4 per 1,000 pregnancies. Majority (79.4%) of the women were multiparous, and referred (94.1%) from traditional birth attendant (TBA) homes. All the pregnancies were term, unbooked for antenatal care and none of the women had tertiary level of education. There were 3 cases of maternal mortality (case fatality rate of 8.8%) and 28 (82.4%) cases of perinatal mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Uterine rupture is still a major public health problem in the developing countries, that has a high potential for causing perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. Behavioural change strategies should be employed in educating women and their spouse through peer education, group engagement and culturally sensitive and acceptable strategies on the need to attend antenatal clinics, and have their deliveries in hospitals equipped with trained and skilled personnel to supervise pregnancy, labour and delivery.</p> D. O. Allagoa, P. C. Oriji, T. J. Wagio, D. C. Briggs, O. I. Oguche, T. R. Mbooh, G. Atemie, B. Eneni ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 13 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Are Primary and Secondary Healthcare Workers in Rural Parts of Ebonyi State of Nigeria Aware of Obstetric Fistula? <p><strong>Background: </strong>Obstetric fistula remains a public health concern in Nigeria. New cases continue to occur despite massive campaigns to end it, so one begins to wonder if the workers in Primary Health Centers in rural parts of the state are aware of this menace. This study aimed to survey the level of awareness of PHC workers in the rural part of Ebonyi State.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Ethical approval was obtained from Ebonyi State Research and Ethic Committee. An interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from the Officers-in-Chargeof the facilities. Frequencies and proportions were calculated for categorical variables while means and standard deviations were calculated for numerical variables. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Software for Social Sciences version 21. Tests of significance were done. A p-value <u>&lt;</u> 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 60 health care workers were studied, 44(73.3%) in primary and 16(26.7%) in secondary facilities. Twenty (33.3%) of them were between age group 40-48 years with mean age 39.6±9.8 while 52(86.7%) were females. Majority (86.7%) had tertiary education and 70% of them were qualified Community Health Extension Workers. Almost all (57; 95%) were aware of obstetric fistula. The major source of information was conferences (52.6%) and electronic media (52.6%). Health workers with more years of experience were more aware of obstetric fistula (93.3%) compared with those with less experience. This was statistically significant, (P= 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Awareness of obstetric fistula is very high among health workers, main sources being conferences/workshops and electronic media. Longer years of work experience improved awareness. Policies for continuous awareness creation, capacity building and retention of health workers in the rural areas are recommended to sustain this awareness level and eradicate obstetric fistula in the state.</p> Johnson Akuma Obuna, Ugochukwu Chinyem Madubueze, Adebayo Babafemi Charles Daniyan, Henry Chukwuemeka Uro-Chukwu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Consumption of Potash Adversely affects Sperm Quality and Sex Hormones of Male Wistar Rats <p><strong>Background:</strong> Potash consumption is very common in Nigeria especially in the rural communities. It is often used as food additives in different doses without any regard for its toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> This study sought to evaluate the effect of potash on the sperm quality and reproductive hormones in male Wistar rats.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> Thirty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups of six each. Animals in group A were administered distilled water while those in groups B, C, D and E were administered 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg body weight of potash for 28-days via oral route of administration. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were collected <em>via</em> cardiac puncture. Sperm quality and sex hormones were evaluated using standard methods.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results of this present study showed a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the concentration of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) at 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control group. Administration of potash significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05) the concentration of serum Luteinizing hormone (LH) in all the treatment groups when compared with the control group. There was a significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) in the concentration of serum testosterone and seminal pH sequel to the administration of potash at 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg body weight when compared with the control group. Administration of potash significantly reduced (p&lt;0.05) the sperm count, motility and morphology of healthy male Wistar rats in all the treatment groups in a dose-dependent manner when compared with the control group.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The results of this study showed that potash has the propensity to compromise sperm quality and sex hormones in male Wistar rats. This does not automatically translate to such effect on humans. It is recommended to be studied in future studies before being investigated in clinical trials.</p> Augustine I. Airaodion, Funmilola C. Oladele, Simeon O. Oluba, Ayodeji A. Adedeji, Aanu P. Agunbiade, Anthony U. Megwas, Emmanuel B. Ayita, Ojo J. Osunmuyiwa ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 12 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Experiences of Adolescent Girls and their Midwives on Intrapartum Perineal Trauma in Selected Hospitals in Kumasi Metropolis <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Adolescent pregnancy and childbearing remain an important global public health concern. Several studies across the globe have enlisted numerous obstetric complications compromising adolescent pregnancy including perineal trauma. Such complications can occur during childbirth leading to increased risk of morbidity and mortality jeopardizing the survival of women and their babies. Significantly young maternal age and first time delivery is seen as the most common cause of Intrapartum Perineal Trauma (IPT). The midwife’s responsibility during delivery to prevent perineal trauma is often controversial. However, it is the responsibility of the midwife in guaranteeing that the active phase of the second stage is dawdling to assist prevents the perineum from injury.</p> <p><strong>Objective:</strong> the general objective is to explore the experiences of adolescent mothers and their midwives on birth-related perineal trauma in three selected Hospitals in Kumasi.</p> <p><strong>Methodology:</strong> this work adopted a descriptive case study approach using both quantitative and qualitative methods (mixed methods). This study again adopted a purposive sampling method which is a technique under the non-probability sampling, followed by simple random sampling. The study sample population was made-up of adolescent with vaginal deliveries for not more than 6 months who has experienced any form of intrapartum perineal trauma and midwives working at labour ward. This made it possible to select 6 adolescent girls and 72 midwives. Complete delivery information recorded in the delivery registers at the labour ward from 2017- 2019 were also sampled. The data collected using Electronic Data Collection Tool was aggregated into a Microsoft Excel file, cleaned and analyzed with SPSS (version 20). The descriptive statistics were compiled using frequency distribution tables and figures. Associations between variables were tested with correlation and regression analysis under the software Statistical package for Social Scientist. Thematic data analysis was employed for the qualitative aspect (open-ended question) and content analysis. The face-to-face interview with the adolescent was recoded, transcribed and analyzed using content analyses.</p> <p><strong>Results and Findings:</strong> The prevalence rate of adolescent in the calculation of total deliveries is low (16%) but the rate turns to be high (84%) when it’s taken in the context of all deliveries with IPT as complications of the second stage of labour. It was also found that 93% midwives were optimistic that, it is important as a practice to repair a perineal tear sustained by the adolescent. It was again found that midwives do not have adequate knowledge on non-pharmacological methods for perineal pain management unlike the high level of knowledge and practice on analgesia. It was also commonly found, that adolescents lack basic information about intrapartum perineal trauma during pregnancy. However, the prominent factor that posed greater likelihood of sustaining IPT was lack of knowledge on perineal trauma. The factors that posed greater likelihood of sustaining IPT were as follows: lack of knowledge on perineal trauma on the side of adolescent, lack of information on delivery positions; uncooperative adolescents; inadequate midwifery skills on perineal care and lack of value for IPT among adolescents. Poor knowledge in adolescent needs and reproductive health services were also significantly considered as risk factors.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is the need for a Standard Operating Protocol for the improvement of knowledge and practice regarding prevention and management of perineal tear. Hospitals should prioritize intrapartum perineal trauma and add it to their reports. Adolescent’s reproductive health services should be re-established; proactive audit and supervision on IPT established in the hospitals.</p> Rachael Annor, Albert Opoku, Alexander Tawiah Odoi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 08 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Investigation on Exposure to Violence and Depression Status of Infertile Women <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The study was carried out to determine exposure to violence and depression status of infertile women.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study was cross-sectional and descriptive type of study. The universe of the study consisted of 1448 infertile women and the sample of the study consisted 306 infertile women. Data were collected by the researcher using the Infertile Women Information Form, Infertile Women’s Exposure to Violence Determination Scale (IWEVDS), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the analysis of the data, number, percentage distribution, chi square, Kruskal-Wallis test, point averages, Pearson Correlation Test and Simple Linear Regression Analysis were used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> It has been determined that the mean age of infertile women was 30.88±6.51 years, 77.3% of women were exposed to violence throughout their lives and 69.4% of them were exposed to violence after being diagnosed with infertility according to their statements and perceptions, IWEVDS point average was 69.89±28.59, 55.9% of women had a higher point than point average of the scale and 66.3% of them had severe depression symptoms. There was a strong and significant positive correlation between point averages of two scales (r=0.629, p&lt;0.05) and 40% of the change in Beck Depression Scale total points could be explained by IWEVDS points.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It has been concluded that the majority of infertile women have moderate and severe depression symptoms, more than half of the women were exposed to violence within the family or society, women with moderate/severe depression symptoms were exposed to violence within the family or society more, and that women were exposed to more violence and pressure within the family or by society because of infertility and there is a strong correlation between this situation and frequency of depression incidence.</p> Hatice Cay, Selma Sen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 24 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0000