Exploring Maternal Biomarkers and Risk Factors in Preeclampsia: Insights from a Ghanaian Case-control Study

Martin Awe Akilla

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

Ignatius Abowini Awinibuno Nchor

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

Moses Banyeh *

Department of Biomedical Laboratory Science, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

Nafiu Amidu

Department of Clinical Chemistry, University for Development Studies, Tamale, Ghana.

*Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.


Abstract

Aims: The involvement of maternal sociodemographic, obstetric, clinical, anthropometric and biochemical variables in preeclampsia has been demonstrated in previous studies. However, there are intra- and inter-population variabilities in study findings due to differences in genetic and environmental factors. This requires population-specific studies to aid the formulation of local protocols for the early detection and management of preeclampsia.

Study Design: This was a case-control study

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital between January and December 2022. The women were aged between 16 and 41 years and were receiving antenatal care at the hospital.

Aim of Work: The current study sought to determine variations in maternal sociodemographic, clinical, obstetric and biochemical characteristics in preeclampsia. To achieve this, women with and without preeclampsia were recruited and compared.

Methodology: The study included 100 and 150 pregnant women with and without preeclampsia respectively. Sociodemographic, birth outcomes and obstetric data were collected from participants’ medical records. Venous and placental blood samples were collected at delivery and analyzed for biochemical variables and malaria parasites.

Results: The results showed that the maternal and gestational ages did not differ between the pregnant women with and without preeclampsia. However, caesarean delivery (ꭓ2=14.275, P<0.001), preterm birth (ꭓ2=12.209, P=0.001) and .placental malaria (ꭓ2=5.335, P=0.032) were associated with preeclampsia. In addition, maternal body mass index and lipid variables such as total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol were significantly higher in preeclampsia. The study also observed higher serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases in preeclampsia. Moreover, serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, urea and uric acid levels were also higher in preeclampsia. However, preeclampsia was characterized by lower serum HDL cholesterol as well as a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate.

Conclusion: Maternal anthropometric, obstetric and clinical variables are associated with preeclampsia. In addition, there are variations in serum lipids and renal and hepatic variables between preeclampsia and normotensive pregnancy. These findings are useful for assessing the risk of preeclampsia in the local population.

Keywords: Preeclampsia, body mass index, cholesterol, caesarean section, placental malaria, Ghana


How to Cite

Akilla, M. A., Nchor , I. A. A., Banyeh , M., & Amidu , N. (2024). Exploring Maternal Biomarkers and Risk Factors in Preeclampsia: Insights from a Ghanaian Case-control Study. International Journal of Research and Reports in Gynaecology, 7(1), 6–13. Retrieved from https://journalijrrgy.com/index.php/IJRRGY/article/view/94

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